Tuesday, May 22, 2018

JUST EAST OF WEST, Part Two #SweetheartsoftheWest

In part one, which is posted on the Western Fictioneers blog, I discussed Nauvoo, Illinois and Hannibal, Missouri. These towns, which are near the area I grew up, have wonderful history, that were part and parcel of my early childhood. For part two I would to share some of the history of Quincy, Illinois and Keokuk, Iowa.

In his book "Reminiscence of Quincy Illinois: Containing Historical Events and Antidotes, Matters Concerning Old Settlers and Old Times etc", 1881Henry Asbury mentions burial mounds where the town was built. "The question of who were the mound builders, what people buried their dead upon our Mount Pisgah — the high mount through which Maine Street was opened to the river — and other high points along the River Bluffs, I leave to others to explain". Whether these were part of the Cahokia settlements is probably lost to history. Cahokia Mounds

It appears one of the first settlers, Willard keys, past the site in May 1819. An act of Congress approved May 6, 1812, and other acts concerning the military bounty lands, indicated all the country lying between the Mississippi and Illinois River were set apart for satisfying the bounties for hundred and 60 acres promised to the non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the United States. That land included Quincy in Adams County and was surveyed between the years 1815 and 1816.Not all of this land was patented to the soldiers, some was afterwards sold by the government to purchasers.

19th Century View of Quincy Courthouse By John Sanftleben
The town of Quincy itself , sitting on the East side of the Mississippi River, started when John Wood purchased 160 acres from war veteran Mark McGowan for $60. Wood initially named the area Bluffs, Illinois. In 1825 it was renamed Quincy, becoming the county seat for the newly created Adams County. Both names in honor of the newly elected Pres. John Quincy Adams. In 1840 the town was incorporated.

When the Mormons were expelled from Missouri in 1838, a number of them sheltered in Quincy prior to moving upstream to Nauvoo Illinois. In that same year Quincy also sheltered the Pottawatomie tribe when they were being relocated from Indiana to Kansas.

In the 1850s and 60s, Quincy grew as a result of steamboat traffic and railroads that ran through the town, linking it to places both East and West. With the founding of the Chicago Burlington and Quincy Railroad in 1855 in the construction of the Quincy rail bridge, the population grew to 24,000 by 1870 and at that time was the second-largest city in the state of Illinois. Because of its proximity to Missouri, a slave state, Quincy had its fair share of controversy on the subject of slavery. For more on the history Quincy Illinois

Keokuk, Iowa is about 36 miles north of Quincy on the West side of the Mississippi River, 15 miles south of Nauvoo, Illinois and 60 miles north of Hannibal, Missouri.

Keokuk in 1865
Keokuk has a National Cemetery that was created during the Civil War to inter veterans who died while being treated in the five military hospitals in the area. By the end of the war the cemetery numbered 600 Union soldiers and 8 Confederate prisoners of war. 

Prior to the building of the dam, on the Mississippi, which began in 1910 and was completed in 1913, the area around Keokuk had some pretty hazardous rapids that effectively cut off steamboat traffic to the northern portion of the river. Known as the Des Moines Rapids, they stretched between Keokuk and Nauvoo. For more on the story of the rapids, and short read can be found here .

Keokuk, located in Lee County Iowa, was the home of one of the early co-ed medical schools. The Keokuk College of Physicians and Surgeons, which opened its doors for classes in November of 1850. The town was also the home of Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) older brother Orion. It was here young Samuel helped his brother in Orion's print shop.

Two places for additional information about Keokuk can be found here: History 1 and History 2 from 1820 to present.

My writing is informed by these towns and others in the tri-state area of my childhood. Many a story has its genesis in what I heard and learned growing up here. My first novel, "Josie's Dream" had Josephine 'Josie' as a graduate of the medical school in Keokuk, Iowa.


Doris Gardner-McCraw -
Author, Speaker, Historian-specializing in
Colorado and Women's History
Member of National League of American Pen Women,
Women Writing the West,
Pikes Peak Posse of the Westerners

Angela Raines - author: Where Love & History Meet
For a list of Angela Raines Books: Here 
Photo and Poem: Click Here 
Angela Raines FaceBook: Click Here

Sunday, May 20, 2018

The Glories of a Hidden Canyon

My trip to Arizona was wonderful. Hubby and I spent several days with my niece and her husband, who made us feel right at home and took us on two fabulous sightseeing jaunts.

Casa Grande Ruins

Over 650 years old, the four-story "Great House" was built by ancient Sonoran Desert people, who also developed wide-scale irrigation farming and trade connections lasting over a thousand years until about 1450 C.E. The earthen buildings, red on buff pottery, and extensive canals are called "Hohokam" but that's not a proper term. The ancestors of the O'Odham, Hopi, and Zuni people were dubbed Hohokam -- not a word in any of their languages or the name of a separate people.
Note modern roof added to protect ruins from further degradation

Arizona Sonoran Desert Museum 

This famous zoo, natural history museum and botanical garden -- about 85% outdoors -- houses 230 animal species, 1,200 plant types, an aquarium and hummingbird enclosure. There are 2 miles of walking paths -- way too much for me! A rented wheelchair and two strong men (Hubby and niece's husband) solved the problem, and although temps were in the 90s, it was a thoroughly enjoyable day.
Cougar at the Museum, photo by Stephen Lea; wikipedia commons
Overlooking Tucson

Then it was on to Canyon de Chelly: Research Time!

We took a 400-mile scenic route to the Navajo Nation in northeastern Arizona. The road snaked up and down and around mountains -- not my husband's favorite driving terrain, but I loved the views! As we neared our destination, the land appeared flat and dry with hazy mountains in the distance. It was hard to believe a deep canyon lay hidden not far away.

Finally arriving in Chinle, a small mostly Navajo town only minutes from the entrance to Canyon de Chelly National Monument, we checked in at the Best Western and rested up.

Shortly before 9 the next morning, our guide from Canyon de Chelly Tours, Richard, picked us up at the hotel. I climbed into the front passenger seat of his SUV while Hubby got in back. He knew how important this excursion was to me and wanted me to have the best views. Thank you, honey!
Our guide Richard                                 Visitor Center
Richard took off and we were soon passing the Visitor Center. Then the canyon opened up before us, revealing rock walls, thick rutted sand and our first glimpse of pictographs. Eye-popping but only a taste of  what was to come.

Slogging on through the sand -- deposited by seasonal streams originating in the Chuska Mountains to the northeast -- we ogled dark streaks called patina on the canyon walls, caused by water, and a strange tower that was split almost in two. Richard took us into Canyon del Muerto, the north fork of the canyon complex where many of the best preserved pueblo ruins are located.

Then came "First Ruin," so named because it's the first pueblo ruin you see in the canyon. Built into a niche in the canyon wall by the Anasazi -- correctly called Ancient Puebloans -- the structures served as apartments for families, often with a ceremonial space and an area for storing food.

We bounced over more sand, with Richard avoiding the worst spots (some are quicksand.) The walls rose taller and taller, we saw more ruins, and stopped once where Navajo artisans were selling their wares. I couldn't resist buying a turquoise necklace! Moving on, we oohed and ahhed over the Two Lizards rock formation and Antelope House Ruin.

Antelope House is named for the pictographs of antelope on the canyon wall around it. The white figures were drawn by ancient pueblo inhabitants. The burnt orange figures were drawn by Navajos who later moved into the hidden canyon.

Finally, we arrived at the famous White House ruin, the only ruin tourists can get close to on their own, following a trail down from the south rim of the canyon. Named for the white painted interior of the rooms, this pueblo was built in two levels. Here are two photos Hubby took of the upper level. Below is a public domain photo from wikipedia showing both levels.

That was as far as we went on our 3 - 4 hour tour. To see more would have required a 7-8 hour tour. Richard dropped us off at out hotel, we grabbed some lunch then drove back to the Visitor Center to check out the model of a traditional Navajo hogan, with a somewhat modernized interior.

The following day, we drove along the south rim of the canyon, stopping at several overlooks. From these photos you get a better feel for the scope of Canyon de Chelly and the height of the walls (up to 1,200 feet at the mouth of del Muerto.) Most dramatic to see was Spider Rock, located at the junction of Canyon de Chelly and Monument Canyon, the south fork. My biggest regret is not taking a longer tour so we could see Spider Rock from the canyon floor.
Tunnel Overlook - a short side canyon leading into the main gorge
Tsegi Overlook showing Chinli Wash
Junction Overlook - where Canyon del Muerto joins Canyon de Chelly
White House Ruin Overlook
Spider Rock Overlook
That concluded our visit to Canyon de Chelly National Monument. Someday I'd love to go back!

Friday, May 18, 2018

WHAT’S A COWBOY WITHOUT A COWBOY HAT? By Sarah J. McNeal #YouAintNoCowboyWithoutAHat #Sweethearts-of-the-West-blog

Pawnee Bill and Zack Miller Ranch 101

I love to wear hats so it’s mighty disappointing to me that women just don’t wear hats like they used to. Somewhere in the 1960’s hats became extinct—or just about anyway.

But cowboy hats are still out there, in fact, maybe even stronger than ever. I guess the reason for their popularity is practicality. Baseball caps which have become so popular these days, are not enough for a real cowpoke’s needs. For one thing, baseball caps may keep the sun out of a cowboy’s eyes, but does little else to protect them from the elements. Personally, another advantage in a cowboy hat is that they are just plain sexy. C’mon, you know there is nothing quite as manly as a man in a Stetson
Just so we’re all clear on exactly what a cowboy hat is, here are some facts:

A cowboy hat is a high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat which grew from the 19th century Mexican culture and has been redefined over time and even by certain individuals because the shape of the hat’s crown and brim are often modified by the wearer depending on taste, fashion, and the weather.
Although cowboy hats may be worn on every continent around the world, it is recognized immediately as part of the American old west and its cowboy culture. From northern Mexico, through western United States, and up into western Canada, the cowboy hat is the iconic gear of a ranch worker, country-western singers, rodeo circuit participants, and movies depicting the west.

The first western cowboy hat was called “Boss of the Plains.” The front-creased “Carlsbad” followed soon after, until the high-crowned, wide-brimmed, soft felt western hats arrived on the scene and became the image we associate with the cowboy today.

A Stetson circa 1920's

The modern renditions of  cowboy hats are made from fur-based (mostly beaver) felt or straw, and sometimes leather. They are sold with a high rounded crown and a wide, flat brim. A simple sweat band on the inside of the crown just before the brim stabilizes the fit of the head. After the initial hat is purchased it can be customized with creases in the crown and a rounded or winged brim according to the owner’s wishes. Often a decorative band fits around the crown on the outside of the hat according to the taste of the individual wearer. Ornamentation such as buckles, bows, and so on are traditionally attached to the left side for an historically practical purpose. Most people are right handed, in the absence of a broad brim, decorative feathers or bows on the right side would interfere with the use of weapons.

Most often the colors are in shades of beige, brown, black, and gray. In the 1940’s pastel colors were introduced and seen on hats worn by movie cowboys and rodeo riders. The most famous and popular design and structure for a cowboy hat was created by J.B. Stetson since it was first introduced back in 1865.

Stetson focused on expensive, high quality hats that were a real investment for working cowboys. The water resistance and durability of the original Stetson gained publicity in 1912 when the USS Maine was raised from the Havana harbor where it had sunk in 1898. They found a Stetson hat in the wreckage which had been exposed to seawater, ooze, mud, and plant growth for 14 years. Amazingly, when that hat was cleaned off it was undamaged. You couldn’t create a better sales pitch than that for a durable, tough cowboy hat.

A Fedora

Just a little side info here about the difference between a fedora and a cowboy hat because of the many variations in a cowboy hat the difference can be a little obscure. So, here are the guidelines to separate and clarify fedoras from cowboy hats:

Fedoras have smaller brims from cowboy hats. They also have a stylish front pinch or dip in the front. Most fedoras have a wide grosgrain hatband. Think about that Frank Sinatra look. There is a wide variety of options in fedoras even though not as many as a cowboy hat. The top of the crown may vary in shape from an open crown, center dent, oval or teardrop shape.

Man in a Fedora

A fedora also has something called a “snap brim” so the brim can be worn up on every side much like a bowler hat. The snap feature on the fedora allows the wearer to snap the front brim down into place like a cool hipster. When the hat is to be stored, the brim can be snapped back into place to maintain its structure.

Indiana Jones’s hat looks like a mixed breed between the two, but it is a fedora and NOT a cowboy hat. It has the wide hatband and the pinched down dip in the front.

There are many famous movie stars, singers, and even a president who wore cowboy hats.

Bill Picket, a Famous Rodeo "Bull Dogger"

Frankie Laine Western Singer

Tim McGraw Country Singer

Tom Mix Silent Film Cowboy (and Friend of Wyatt Earp)

William S. Hart Silent Film Cowboy

Ronald Reagon, Actor and President of the United States

Here is a little scene with Hank Wilding and his Stetson in my book, HOME FOR THE HEART:

Smoothing her hands over her lavender shirtwaist dress, Lucy took a deep breath. Hank is never going to be interested in a plain woman like me. She turned from the mirror just as she heard the knock on the front door downstairs.

Her mother called up the stairs. “Lucy, honey, Hank is here.”

A thrill rippled through Lucy’s core. Hank. Handsome, unattainable, Hank Wilding. A reminder flashed through her mind. Even if she was beautiful, it wouldn’t matter. Hank was a self-proclaimed bachelor. Guard your heart, Lucille Thoroughgood. It will only get broken.

The sight of Hank standing with his hat held politely in his hands at the bottom of the stairs caused her heart to leap into her throat and beat so fast she could barely breathe. Her hands shook from the surge of adrenaline. No man should be that beautiful. A lock of his bronzed hair had an enticing way of falling over his brow. She wanted so much to touch it and sweep it back just so she could feel its texture. Hank gazed up the stairs at her with his dark brown eyes and seemed to hold her in his spell. And if that wasn’t enough, he grinned at her in that charming, crooked way she found so endearing. It wasn’t often Hank smiled. He frowned most of the time. It was a good thing, too, because, if he did smile often, women all over town would be swooning at his feet.

Diverse stories filled with heart

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

McGuffey Readers – Student textbooks of the 19th Century by Kaye Spencer #SweetheartsoftheWest

Long before Fun with Dick and Jane and Run Spot Run, there were McGuffey Readers. 

McGuffey Readers—these two words immediately bring to mind the ubiquitous Old West one-room schoolhouse. Well, for me, anyway. I have a set of these Readers. While they aren't first editions, they are true-to-the-original reprints. (enlarge the images to clarify the small print)

So what, exactly, are McGuffey Readers? They are a set of six student textbooks leveled for grades first through sixth. The set also includes a spelling book and a Primer (for the emerging reader). These textbooks were popular in America from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th century. McGuffey Readers and the 18th century textbooks, the New England Primer, provided the educational foundation for countless numbers of students. The McGuffey Readers were so successful that they sold more than 120 million copies between 1836 and 1960.¹

The man who created the Readers was William Holmes McGuffey. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1800 to Scottish emigrant parents, and he died in 1873. His mother was his first teacher, and he was an intelligent and curious learner.

William Holmes McGuffey
[citing below]
While he was still quite young, opportunity came his way, and a benevolent preacher took William McGuffey into his home. McGuffey was now in a city where he was able to study surveying, mathematics, and Latin. This gave him the necessary knowledge to enter college, which he eventually did, but his finances were poor, and it took him some time to earn his degrees.

Now, backing up a bit, McGuffey took a job as a teacher in a one-room school house when he was fourteen. He faced the challenge, as did all one-room schoolhouse teachers, of having students ranging in ages from six to twenty-one. He had few resources. The Bible was the primary reading material, since textbooks were not common.

Over the years, and in between his teaching jobs, he attended two colleges, earned his degrees, and eventually gained a position as a professor at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. He taught at other universities during his lifetime, too. He was married to Harriet Spining, a judge’s daughter, and they had five children. He was a philanthropist of great generosity. After Harriet died in 1850, he remarried.

McGuffey was a professor at Miami University when he began working on the first four Readers. The content included his “own writings, clippings from periodicals, and selections from standard works”².

Standing on the little portico at the north door, McGuffey assembled the children of the neighborhood for regular reading classes. In his dining room he tested his original theories about teaching children. He noted the pieces they liked best and carefully watched their pronunciation. He seemed to love and understand children.²
McGuffey Reader - Primer level - example pages

William McGuffey put together the first four books, and his brother Alexander completed the fifth and sixth books. The books were designed to become increasingly challenging as the student advanced through the levels. Slate work enhanced the readings. Family lore has it that Mrs. McGuffey authored the Primer, but she kept this a secret out of modesty and delicacy².

The Readers were first published in 1836-1837 and the next edition came out in 1879. This was when they underwent revisions in content and approach to stay current with the mores and societal beliefs of the time. For instance, the original editions reflected McGuffey’s strong Calvinist values with the themes of righteousness and piety written throughout, whereas the 1879 editions reflected a more secularized slant on morality and values. It is interesting to note that by 1879, the Readers still carried McGuffey’s name, but he didn’t approve the content and he didn’t contribute to the revisions.

McGuffey Reader - Spelling book - example pages

Two contributing reasons for the decline in popularity of the McGuffey Readers was schools needed textbooks of less overtly religious content, and the rise of consumable workbooks caught on. However, McGuffey Readers didn’t disappear completely. They still have a following in the private school setting and homeschooling environment.

McGuffey Reader - Second level - example pages
McGuffey Reader - Sixth level - example pages
Hamlet's Soliloquy is on the right-hand side.
My maternal grandmother used them in her first years of teaching in a one-room schoolhouse in northeastern Colorado (c. 1925). Are you familiar with McGuffey Readers? I’d love to hear your stories.

Until next month,

Kaye Spencer

Website/Blog- https://www.kayespencer.com
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YouTube Channel - https://www.youtube.com/c/kayespencer0203

¹Lynch, Matthew. “The Story of American Education and the McGuffey Readers.” The Advocate. 2 September 2018. Web. 14 May 2018. http://www.theedadvocate.org/story-american-education-mcguffey-readers/

²Smith, William E. “W. H. McGuffey.”  Miami University, miamioh.edu/cca/mcguffey-museum/. 1973. Web. 14 May 2018.

Library of Congress. Rare Book & Special Collections Reading Room, Selected Special Collections, McGuffey Reader Collection. 15 November 2006. Web. 14 May 2018. https://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/coll/152.html.

“McGuffey Readers”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 27 March 2018. Web. 14 May 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McGuffey_Readers.

McGuffey Readers: Kaye Spencer’s personal collection

William Homes McGuffey - Unknown (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Holmes_McGuffey.jpg), „William Holmes McGuffey“, marked as public domain, more details on Wikimedia Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Template:PD-1923

Monday, May 14, 2018

Chaco Canyon and The Turquoise Legacy

It’s fascinating for those of us who write flying by the seat of our pants when ideas and settings fall into our laps. I’d written My Heart Will Find Yours, a time travel romance that involves an antique turquoise locket. The stone has magical powers and transports Texanna Keith back to 1876 Waco, Texas.
I wanted to write a sequel and knew the story would be set in the present, would include time travel, and revolve around an ancestor of Texanna's. Her great-granddaughter, Madison, travels back to 1000 A.D. My research began with turquoise in the Southwest and boy-o-boy, I hit a goldmine—Chaco Canyon in New Mexico. The sequel is Flames on the Sky.
Chaco Canyon from above.
Interestingly enough, my husband and I had visited Santa Fe and Madrid, New Mexico and been on part of the Turquoise Trail, though unfortunately we did not visit the Carrillo Mines where the Anasazi of Chaco Canyon obtained most of their turquoise back around 1000 AD. Chaco Canyon was a center of trade and prosperous during their time trading turquoise for items not available to them in the canyon. Remains of parrots and macaws, seashells and other artifacts indicate traders came from far distances to barter with the Anasazi.
The Anasazi occupied Chaco Canyon between 850 AD and 1100 AD. No one knows exactly where they went or what happened to them. There are several theories surrounding the mystery. The one I prefer to believe is they migrated to live with other Pueblo tribes. 
Fajada Butte
Chaco Canyon is a mysterious place and covers a vast amount of space. Pueblo Bonito also the center of an elaborate solar calendar:  all of the buildings are either part of the solar calendar that traces the 18.5-year lunar cycle.” It includes ten buildings, some of which are believed to have been five stories high. “
A large rock structure, Fajada Butte, is seen as you enter the canyon. “Concentric circles carved in the rock, with slabs of rock placed in just such a way that would make the light passing through turn into a dagger which, when it hit the circles would reveal the solstices and equinoxes.”
There archaeologist discovered a sun calendar that has been named “The Anasazi Dagger.”
Cliff Drawings
Calendar—Una Vida
It is now believed that the entire Chaco Canyon, the way that its buildings were placed, the directions of the roads, etc. indicate they were aligned so as to line up with the arch of the sun and moon on important dates of the year.
Though Pueblo Bonito
Pueblo Bonita
Una Vida from the trail
is the most impressive structure, my story revolves around Una Vida as it is nearer the visitor’s center and the setting was perfect for the scenes I created back in 1000 AD.
If you’ve not visited Chaco Canyon, you should stop by if you’re ever in the neighborhood. 

http://www.jqjacobs.net/southwest/chaco.html- photo of Fajada Butte and photo 2 of sundagger.

Links of interest:
http://www.exploratorium.edu/chaco/HTML/canyon.html- this site has interactive videos showing solstice patterns and lighting changes in the canyon.

“Marshal, you gotta come quick.”
            Royce quickened his step and wondered what now?
            A large crowd gathered in front of Hans’ Saloon.       “Shoot her in the foot.” He recognized the baritone immediately. It was Hans. “If you don’t, she’s going to hurt someone else. I think she’s already broke Jason’s arm.”
            She?Royce broke into a run. What the hell was going on? They’d never had a woman cause trouble before.
            A female resounded, “Don’t come any closer, leave me alone.” She attempted to sound controlled, but her voice became shriller with each word. But still not at all like what he’d expect of a woman gone wild.
            Jason’s voice, filled with pain, broke through the mumbling of the crowd. “Stop...stay back...she’s scared. Royce will...be here...in a minute.” Jason’s statement ended with a groan.
            “Yeah, well I’m not going to let the Missus’ hurt anyone else,” said Hans.
            Royce shoved his way through the crowd. He glanced quickly at Jason to see if he was breathing, then turned to the woman the crowd had backed up against the boardwalk in front of the saloon. Hans eased behind her and quickly caught her under the arms and locked his hands behind her head. Head pushed forward, the woman fought to break Hans’ hold. She kicked backwards but Hans lifted her off the ground and swung her from side to side so her feet couldn’t make contact. 
“Hurry up, Marshal, get some cuffs on her. How else you gonna get her home?” 
A quick scan of the woman indicated she didn’t have a weapon strapped to her side or in her hands. His gaze moved from the unusual shoes she wore, up indecently clad legs encased in denim pants. How else could he describe it? When his eyes reached her torso, his body jerked in response. Beautiful breasts were fully outlined by a skintight blouse. Her pebbled nipples showed through the thin, pink fabric. His face burned with anger. It was down right scandalous. No decent woman would dress so provocatively. Then he noticed the flame-colored curls. Hans eased his hold, and her head jerked up. His eyes met hers, and his heart stopped. God, she’s beautiful. He looked at her face again and thought he’d faint from sheer joy. His bliss quickly turned to rage.
With a growl, he bit out, “Get your hands off my wife.” At least, he thought it was his wife. The hair was the same, but her eyes were bluer, her nose thinner, and damned if she didn’t have kohl on her eyebrows and lashes.

Excerpt:  Flames on the Sky

Madison felt as if she’d traveled to the Twilight Zone. Lilly’s claims were preposterous, but, she couldn’t deny what she’d seen on the cliff face or the dreams.
           “Yes, you need to tell me about the dreams. They started at the time you received the necklace, right?”
          Madison nodded. “How did you know?”
           “I assumed the ancient Elders would haunt you, but when Lonan called yesterday, I knew so for a fact.” Her smile was sympathetic. “Tell me about them.”
          Lilly’s eyes lit with excitement as Madison talked. When she finished, the older woman leaned back and closed her eyes.
          Lonan’s brow was furrowed, his mouth pinched. “What did you mean when you said, ‘You are the one.’?”
           She pierced him with an intent look. “Did not Madison say you were the very image of the warrior in her dream? The prophecy requires that someone from the past, which is you, son, be chosen to be Madison’s protector.” Lilly turned to Madison. 
           Oh, no. I don’t think I want to hear this. She held up her hands and shook her head. “No—”
           “Yes, Madison, with hair of fire, whether you like it or not, the Gods chose you, someone from the future, to find the third stone and reunite the twins with the mother stone. Together, you two will find a way to consign the evil one to the pit below mother earth where he belongs.”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tghS1kr6TnY       Flames on The Sky

Thanks for stopping by and Happy Reading and Writing!

Linda LaRoque